Presentation Title

Effect of Factory Farming on Colistin Resistance on Gram-Negative Bacteria and its Implications on Healthcare

Start Date

November 2016

End Date

November 2016

Location

HUB 367

Type of Presentation

Oral Talk

Abstract

The overuse of antibiotics in factory farming has resulted in antimicrobial resistance in gram-negative bacteria, characterized by a thin peptidoglycan layer and a high lipopolysaccharide content, which account for many of the hospital-acquired bacterial infections today. Recently, hospitals have reintroduced the last-resort antibiotic colistin, as a measure against multidrug resistant bacteria, even though this drug has been shown to cause nephrotoxicity, or toxicity of the kidneys. Colistin is in a class of polymyxin antibiotics used almost exclusively in the agricultural sector as a prophylactic to ward off gram-negative bacterial infections, and also to promote growth of the animal. Additionally, studies have also shown that colistin resistance can be transferred between gram-negative bacteria through mcr-1, a plasmid-encoded enzyme that modifies lipopolysaccharides on the outer membrane to reduce colistin affinity. Taken together, these two practices, hospital and agricultural use of colistin, can potentially lead to pandrug resistance. Therefore, this meta-analysis, which incorporates studies within the last decade, seeks to determine if the increased use of colistin is correlated with an increased prevalence of multidrug resistance of gram-negative bacteria. The findings of this study suggest a link between the use of colistin and increased prevalence of gram-negative bacterial resistance in both the United States and China, because of the unregulated usage of antibiotics in the agricultural sector, and resulting reintroduction of colistin in the hospital setting.

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Nov 12th, 3:15 PM Nov 12th, 3:30 PM

Effect of Factory Farming on Colistin Resistance on Gram-Negative Bacteria and its Implications on Healthcare

HUB 367

The overuse of antibiotics in factory farming has resulted in antimicrobial resistance in gram-negative bacteria, characterized by a thin peptidoglycan layer and a high lipopolysaccharide content, which account for many of the hospital-acquired bacterial infections today. Recently, hospitals have reintroduced the last-resort antibiotic colistin, as a measure against multidrug resistant bacteria, even though this drug has been shown to cause nephrotoxicity, or toxicity of the kidneys. Colistin is in a class of polymyxin antibiotics used almost exclusively in the agricultural sector as a prophylactic to ward off gram-negative bacterial infections, and also to promote growth of the animal. Additionally, studies have also shown that colistin resistance can be transferred between gram-negative bacteria through mcr-1, a plasmid-encoded enzyme that modifies lipopolysaccharides on the outer membrane to reduce colistin affinity. Taken together, these two practices, hospital and agricultural use of colistin, can potentially lead to pandrug resistance. Therefore, this meta-analysis, which incorporates studies within the last decade, seeks to determine if the increased use of colistin is correlated with an increased prevalence of multidrug resistance of gram-negative bacteria. The findings of this study suggest a link between the use of colistin and increased prevalence of gram-negative bacterial resistance in both the United States and China, because of the unregulated usage of antibiotics in the agricultural sector, and resulting reintroduction of colistin in the hospital setting.