Presentation Title

The Composition of the Dental Students’ Oral Microbiome by Gender and its Relevance for the Determination of Pathogenic Commensals in Medical Dentistry

Faculty Mentor

Dr. James Harber

Start Date

17-11-2018 12:30 PM

End Date

17-11-2018 2:30 PM

Location

HARBESON 47

Session

POSTER 2

Type of Presentation

Poster

Subject Area

health_nutrition_clinical_science

Abstract

The oral microbiome evolved as a dynamic population of microorganisms that are potentially influenced by diet, immune status and gender. Recent studies of the oral microbiome show that some bacteria previously thought to be commensal pose a serious health risk if their quantities exceed a safe threshold. The mouth hosts as many as 700 species of bacteria, protozoa, fungi and viruses. There can then potentially enter the bloodstream via small breaches in the gingiva near the teeth or by microscopic perforations of the digestive tract due to prior infections with food borne bacteria. Strong evidence continues to accumulate to suggest that a baby is born with bacteria derived from the oral microbiome of the mother, further highlighting the critical role of oral microbiology of parents to establish the microbiome of the infant. This study sought to only examine the oral microbiome of adult men and women to explore gender variations in bacteria of the oral microbiome. The hypothesis of this study is that no gender differences exist in the bacterial commensals comprising the oral microbiome diversity in 12 student samples. Oral samples were self-collected from in between the teeth by self-extraction with a DNA toothbrush, processed with Epicentre reagents and analyzed by Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) on an Illumina MiSeq at a resolution of 20 million cluster reads per sample. A consensus analysis of the six males and six females revealed a consistent 164 bacterial species of significance.The abundance (percentage) of each bacterial species was also identified in the twelve human oral tooth samples. A multi-variant statistical analysis showed that the nine bacteria were more abundant in females (Fusobacterium nucleatum, Veillonella parvula, Gemella haemolysans, Prevotella melaninogenica, Prevotella intermedia, Eubacterium sp, Peptostreptococcus stomatis, Porphyromonas endodontalis and Porphyromonas gingivalis). Seven bacterial species were more abundant in males (Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Neisseria subflava, Streptococcus sanguinis, Haemophilus influenza, Rothia dentocariosa and Streptococcus mutans). Some gender skewed species identified by rejecting the null hypothesis are found to be associated with adverse systemic health outcomes including endocarditis (Gemelia species) and pre-term labor (Fusobacterium nucleatum). Further analysis revealed that the bacteria with the most high abundance consistently identified (Streptococcus sanguinis), was more abundant in males (38% of total bacteria) vs. females (25% of the total bacteria). Other potential disease associations with the commensals were identified. Soon, screening of oral microbiome diversity could represent an important diagnostic tool for the microbiology laboratory students and medical dentists to provide information to promote a balanced microbiome so as to better treat oral health in family planning and prenatal care.

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Nov 17th, 12:30 PM Nov 17th, 2:30 PM

The Composition of the Dental Students’ Oral Microbiome by Gender and its Relevance for the Determination of Pathogenic Commensals in Medical Dentistry

HARBESON 47

The oral microbiome evolved as a dynamic population of microorganisms that are potentially influenced by diet, immune status and gender. Recent studies of the oral microbiome show that some bacteria previously thought to be commensal pose a serious health risk if their quantities exceed a safe threshold. The mouth hosts as many as 700 species of bacteria, protozoa, fungi and viruses. There can then potentially enter the bloodstream via small breaches in the gingiva near the teeth or by microscopic perforations of the digestive tract due to prior infections with food borne bacteria. Strong evidence continues to accumulate to suggest that a baby is born with bacteria derived from the oral microbiome of the mother, further highlighting the critical role of oral microbiology of parents to establish the microbiome of the infant. This study sought to only examine the oral microbiome of adult men and women to explore gender variations in bacteria of the oral microbiome. The hypothesis of this study is that no gender differences exist in the bacterial commensals comprising the oral microbiome diversity in 12 student samples. Oral samples were self-collected from in between the teeth by self-extraction with a DNA toothbrush, processed with Epicentre reagents and analyzed by Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) on an Illumina MiSeq at a resolution of 20 million cluster reads per sample. A consensus analysis of the six males and six females revealed a consistent 164 bacterial species of significance.The abundance (percentage) of each bacterial species was also identified in the twelve human oral tooth samples. A multi-variant statistical analysis showed that the nine bacteria were more abundant in females (Fusobacterium nucleatum, Veillonella parvula, Gemella haemolysans, Prevotella melaninogenica, Prevotella intermedia, Eubacterium sp, Peptostreptococcus stomatis, Porphyromonas endodontalis and Porphyromonas gingivalis). Seven bacterial species were more abundant in males (Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Neisseria subflava, Streptococcus sanguinis, Haemophilus influenza, Rothia dentocariosa and Streptococcus mutans). Some gender skewed species identified by rejecting the null hypothesis are found to be associated with adverse systemic health outcomes including endocarditis (Gemelia species) and pre-term labor (Fusobacterium nucleatum). Further analysis revealed that the bacteria with the most high abundance consistently identified (Streptococcus sanguinis), was more abundant in males (38% of total bacteria) vs. females (25% of the total bacteria). Other potential disease associations with the commensals were identified. Soon, screening of oral microbiome diversity could represent an important diagnostic tool for the microbiology laboratory students and medical dentists to provide information to promote a balanced microbiome so as to better treat oral health in family planning and prenatal care.