Presentation Title

Putative Host Defense Peptides from Snakes and Wallaby Inhibit Human Influenza Viruses In Vitro

Faculty Mentor

Jessica Shartouny, Dr. Joshy Jacob

Start Date

23-11-2019 8:00 AM

End Date

23-11-2019 8:45 AM

Location

53

Session

poster 1

Type of Presentation

Poster

Subject Area

biological_agricultural_sciences

Abstract

Viruses like influenza are difficult to combat, as they mutate so quickly that vaccines often are ineffective and antiviral drug resistance is common. Therefore, development of new antiviral agents is of paramount importance. Host defense peptides (HDPs) are one potential source of new drugs to counter viruses. These are short peptides produced innately by a wide variety of animals that can target common motifs on a pathogen to help protect the animal from infection. Our lab has previously found Urumin, a HDP isolated from an Indian frog, that has viral inhibition activity against one subtype of influenza viruses. Similarly, the aim of this project is to find additional HDPs that have antiviral activities to improve the breadth of peptide-based drugs. In this study, nine antimicrobial peptides were discovered and their toxicity against human erythrocytes and antiviral activity against H1N1 and H3N2 were then analyzed. Different peptide sequences that have homology to OH-CATH 30, a known antimicrobial peptide found in King Cobras, were identified through genomic scanning of various animal species. These peptide sequences came from nine species: Eastern brown snake (PT), Brown spotted pit viper (PM), Tiger snake (NS), Tropical rattlesnake (CDC), Burmese python (PB), Koala (PC), Tammar wallaby (NE), Plasmodium parasite (PM2), and Tiger tail seahorse (HC). They were then synthesized and hemolysis assays and focus forming assays were performed to measure their toxicity against erythrocytes and their antiviral activity against H1N1 and H3N2 influenza virus. Peptides NS, PM2, NE, HC, CDC, PB, and PM were found to be nontoxic to the cell line. Peptides PM, PT, PC, PB, CDC, and NE completely inhibited H1N1 and H3N2 infections. Peptides PM, PB, CDC and NE are candidates for novel antiviral peptides and are being further investigated for use as antiviral therapeutics.

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Nov 23rd, 8:00 AM Nov 23rd, 8:45 AM

Putative Host Defense Peptides from Snakes and Wallaby Inhibit Human Influenza Viruses In Vitro

53

Viruses like influenza are difficult to combat, as they mutate so quickly that vaccines often are ineffective and antiviral drug resistance is common. Therefore, development of new antiviral agents is of paramount importance. Host defense peptides (HDPs) are one potential source of new drugs to counter viruses. These are short peptides produced innately by a wide variety of animals that can target common motifs on a pathogen to help protect the animal from infection. Our lab has previously found Urumin, a HDP isolated from an Indian frog, that has viral inhibition activity against one subtype of influenza viruses. Similarly, the aim of this project is to find additional HDPs that have antiviral activities to improve the breadth of peptide-based drugs. In this study, nine antimicrobial peptides were discovered and their toxicity against human erythrocytes and antiviral activity against H1N1 and H3N2 were then analyzed. Different peptide sequences that have homology to OH-CATH 30, a known antimicrobial peptide found in King Cobras, were identified through genomic scanning of various animal species. These peptide sequences came from nine species: Eastern brown snake (PT), Brown spotted pit viper (PM), Tiger snake (NS), Tropical rattlesnake (CDC), Burmese python (PB), Koala (PC), Tammar wallaby (NE), Plasmodium parasite (PM2), and Tiger tail seahorse (HC). They were then synthesized and hemolysis assays and focus forming assays were performed to measure their toxicity against erythrocytes and their antiviral activity against H1N1 and H3N2 influenza virus. Peptides NS, PM2, NE, HC, CDC, PB, and PM were found to be nontoxic to the cell line. Peptides PM, PT, PC, PB, CDC, and NE completely inhibited H1N1 and H3N2 infections. Peptides PM, PB, CDC and NE are candidates for novel antiviral peptides and are being further investigated for use as antiviral therapeutics.